From the “beginning” to the present day
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- Albarracín and its Sierra were populated during the Epipalaeolithic period, more than 8,000 years ago. Groups of nomads who took refuge in shelters and caves, and who practiced a hunting and gathering economy.
- The shelters of Cocinilla del Obispo and Doña Clotilde, very close to the city, in the Protected Landscape of Rodeno, With various figures of deer, large white painted bulls and warriors, they are the best expression of Levantine prehistoric art.
The Celtiberian settlement: the Lobetanos
- The falcatas, coins, inscriptions in Iberian alphabet and Celtiberian language, tell us of a city that could be Lobetum , quoted by Ptolemy. These Celtiberians are mainly cattle farmers, and combine this activity with metallurgy and agriculture. They live in well-defended towns, on strategic hills, and the tribes that inhabit them had, among the Romans, a well-deserved reputation for bloodthirsty and dangerous warriors. The conquest of these mountains was not easy, and when it took place, after the Celtiberian wars that ended in 133 BC with the capture of Numancia, it caused a cultural substratum to survive for centuries.
- In addition to the impressive Roman aqueduct from Albarracín to Cella, of more than 18 kilometers that combines aerial routes and others excavated in rock , there are remains of a Roman necropolis from which the tombstones that decorate the base of the Albarracín Cathedral were extracted, among which a relief with a patera and a prefericle stands out, associated with the cult of the emperor.
- It has been estimated that they would work more than 200,000 days to build it. If it had been completed in a year, 600 workers would have had to intervene.
- The end of the aqueduct was a waterfall that could move 14 mills that could grind up to 3,864 kilos of wheat each day . With that wheat, he could supply a city of about 5,500 people.
- The remains found allow us to date the work between the end of the 1st century or the beginning of the 2nd century after Christ.
Find more information in the Roman Aqueduct section:
The Muslim Invasion
- In the year 711 the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula took place and the Visigothic monarchy disappeared, leaving no rest in Albarracín. According to the Arabist Jacinto Bosch, a Berber group from the Hawara tribe, called Ibn Razin, settled in these lands, making the city, called in Arabic sources Santa María de Levante, or Santa María de Ibn Razin, ruling a large territory. as dependent governors of the Caliphate of Córdoba. When the Caliphate dissolved between 1009 and 1013, the Ib Razin proclaimed a Taifa, or independent kingdom.
- The current name of the city of Albarracín comes from a family from North Africa, the Banu Razín, from that there are still descendants in Morocco. They were Berbers and not Arabs, and they initially called this city Santa María al-Sarqi or Santa María de Oriente. After a few years it was renamed Santa María de los Banu Razín, and from there it became Santa María de Albarracín.
First urban structure of current Albarracín
- Abu Mohamed Hudail ben Khalaf ben Lubb, at the age of twenty, was proclaimed king in 1013. It is to him that the first urban structure of the current Albarracín. Famous for his cruelty and refinement (he even killed his mother), the chronicles say that he paid 3,000 gold dinars for the most beautiful slave in Córdoba to bring her to Albarracín: “in his time no one saw a woman with a more graceful walk, with more alive, a finer silhouette, a sweeter voice, knowing how to sing better, excellent in the art of writing, in calligraphy, with a purer diction….”
- His son Abdel Melic came to extend his domain to Sagunto, and fought alongside the Cid and against him. He was also known for his cruelty, even having his hands cut off , the feet and gouging out his brother-in-law’s eyes before crucifying him for suspecting that he was conspiring against him.
- From the reign of Abdel Melic we have preserved a silver essential, a jewel that was made for his wife Zahr, and on it is engraved this inscription with letters gold: “perennial blessing, general well-being, continued prosperity, high rank, honor, assistance, divine help, and good direction toward good and equity.”
- According to the “Cantar del Mío Cid”, in September 1093 the Cid appeared in Albarracín with 200 men on horseback , fortifying his camp near the city and ravaging the region. When he approached, with only three men as an escort, twelve Muslim knights came out through a gate in the wall, engaging in a fight in which the Cid was seriously injured.
Albarracín passes into Christian hands: Los Azagra
- A century later, a Navarrese knight named Pedro Ruiz de Azagra managed, according to tradition, to have the king Lobo de Murcia, who ruled Albarracín at the time, ceded the kingdom of Albarracín to him in gratitude for his help. Don Pedro declared himself a vassal of Santa María and lord of Albarracín, thus beginning the Christian rule of the city, independent from Castile and Aragon for almost a century.
- To attract neighbors who wanted to come and live in Albarracín, the Azagra family granted a charter that guarantees freedom, not paying taxes, and have a part of the loot conquered from the Muslims. Many Aragonese, Castilians and Navarrese, seeking their fortune, decided to settle in Albarracín. Their heraldic shields are still preserved on the portals of their houses. In addition, the lords of Albarracín allowed them to elect their representatives to govern the city and its territory, which over time became the Community of Albarracín. This charter was maintained until 1598, when the city came to be governed by the Charter of Aragon. The kings, before beginning their mandate, swore to comply with and respect the jurisdiction and privileges of Albarracín.
- The council house, today the town hall, in the main square, had a main room, called King Jaime , where the neighbors met, presided over by the judge and the juries (the current councillors), to discuss any matter of common interest.
The incorporation of Albarracín to Aragón
- The last feudal lord of Albarracín, Juan Núñez de Laza, clashed with the King of Aragon Pedro III, who in 1284 laid siege to Albarracín with his army. He destroyed the mills and placed siege engines to destroy and burn the city. The royal camp was established outside the walls, in the neighborhood that is now known as Los Palacios. After several months of siege, without food and despite a desperate departure of the infants and knights of Albarracín, in which the governor died, Albarracín finally surrendered and finally in the year 1300 paid homage to the King of Aragon.
The modern age
- King Felipe II wanted to end the foralism of the cities of Teruel and Albarracín, and started a serious conflict that only it ended after the uprising in 1592, the beheading of the Justice of Aragon and the abolition of the fueros. From 1598 Albarracín was formally incorporated into the Fueros de Aragón, losing its own laws.
- In 1689 the villages of Albarracín achieved, upon payment of an important donation of 4,500 reales, the jurisdictional separation of the city , consolidating a differentiated Community, with particular ordinations, and without dependence, except in ecclesiastical matters, on Albarracín. But with the arrival of the Bourbons in the 18th century, a royal corregidor governed the territory, in accordance with the laws and customs of Castile. The territorial unification of Spain was advancing.
Transformación de las instituciones
- La instauración de la dinastía borbónica tras la guerra de Sucesión provocó la transformación de las instituciones políticas existentes hasta el momento, con el fin de colocar bajo leyes comunes los distintos territorios de Aragón. La reforma de la Comunidad de Albarracín se hizo según el modelo de las ya existentes en Castilla mediante un Auto Real de 1708. Albarracín se convierte en cabeza de un corregimiento hasta la división provincial de 1833.
Royal Board of Popular Industry
- The Royal Board of Popular Industry in Albarracín is created, from which the textile industry in the city was promoted , and most of the population was employed there.
- Napoleon’s French army entered the city on December 26, 1809. Textile factories were destroyed, fields were razed and cattle were confiscated. The majority of the population was mobilized and haciendas were ruined.
- From 1833 to 1840, during the Carlist Wars, the parties of El Royo de Alcañiz, Carnicer, Quílez, Marconell, Tena or the Organista devastate the city and its region. In his pursuit, Albarracín will be occupied by liberal troops. The town manifests itself as a Carlist majority.
- In the 1851 Concordat between the Spanish State and the Holy See, in its article five, there is an important reorganization ecclesiastical The Diocese of Albarracín was united to that of Teruel. Thus ended seven centuries of bishops at the headquarters of the diocese. Since 1878 it was governed by the bishops of Teruel as apostolic administrators.
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